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Beware of accidents soon! The emergency doctor will send you a self-help manual for common accidents on campus

Time:2022-09-26 00:16:50 author:Mental disorder Read:262次
Beware of accidents soon! The emergency doctor will send you a self-help manual for common accidents on campus

Seeing that the start of school is getting closer and closer, and the "sacred beast" is about to return, parents are relieved, but at the same time they are worried that the child may not have any accident under their eyes. In order to prevent problems before they happen, the knowledge of how to save oneself and one another when an accident occurs on campus is something that teachers and students in the school need to learn together. Today, let us follow Xiong Yan, the chief physician of the emergency department of Sun Yat-sen University Affiliated Hospital, to talk with you about the self-help and mutual-help methods for 10 common health accidents on campus. 1. External bleeding External bleeding, including bleeding from arteries, veins and capillaries. Arterial hemorrhage is jet-like, which is more dangerous; venous hemorrhage is fluid-like; capillary hemorrhage is oozing blood like sweat and water droplets. External bleeding is often related to trauma. At this time, appropriate decontamination and disinfection are required first. First, rinse the dirty things on the surface, that is, perform proper decontamination, and then do appropriate bandaging. If the bleeding is large, you need to seek medical attention immediately. In addition, there are special treatment methods for bleeding in different parts: bleeding in the extremities: tourniquets can be applied, or pressure can be applied to stop the bleeding, wherever the bleeding occurs. Bleeding from the fingers: If the bleeding is at the tip of the finger, apply a little pressure on both sides of the base of the finger, and the bleeding at the extremities will be significantly reduced. Nosebleeds: Lean forward slightly, hold the sides of the nose alar with two fingers, and press slightly. 2. Thermal scald Thermal scald can be divided into first-degree scald, second-degree scald, and third-degree scald according to the severity, which are more common in the skin. First-degree burns are characterized by skin redness and pain, but no edema; second-degree burns are characterized by blisters, local moistness, and severe pain; third-degree burns are mostly local dryness, discoloration, and often no pain. For common thermal burns, rinse the wound with running, clean, cold water. Reduces further damage to tissue from heat. Chief Physician Xiong Yan reminded that if blisters appear on the scalded area, do not puncture them to prevent infection of the scalded area. Do not use toothpaste, soy sauce and other items to smear the wound, so as not to mislead the doctor's judgment on the condition, stimulate the wound and cause infection. In the event of serious thermal burns, it is necessary to immediately call 120 for the emergency number, and at the same time, quickly remove the injured from the heat source. While waiting for the ambulance, the wound can be washed continuously with cold water or directly immersed in water. If possible, use a clean dressing or The wound is simply wrapped with cloth for wound protection. 3. Chemical burns On campus, when students do chemical experiments, improper operation may cause chemical burns. Common burn sites include skin, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and respiratory tract. In the event of chemical burns, it is necessary to remove the heat source in time and cut off the contaminated clothing. Rinse the wound with running cold water continuously, and the rinsing time should be 15-30 minutes or even longer until the burning sensation disappears. If ingestion of chemicals such as quicklime causes gastrointestinal burns, emergency treatment can be given by swallowing egg whites. 4. Chemical eye injury Chemical eye injury refers to eye burns caused by acid-base chemical substances, among which alkaline burns are the most serious, and the blindness rate is high, which may have a great impact on vision and even appearance. Chief Physician Xiong Yan said that once a chemical substance enters the eyes and causes eye burns, you should immediately collect materials on the spot, find the nearest water source, rinse your eyes repeatedly for at least 30 minutes, open your eyelids as much as possible, and rinse from multiple angles and in all directions. Eyes, although rinsing may lead to eye infections, these infections can be saved with proper follow-up medical attention. If not rinsed in time, the damage to the vision is often irreversible. In addition, if quicklime gets into your eyes, you should use a clean cotton swab dipped in cooking oil to remove the lime residue, and then rinse with plenty of water. 5. Syncope Syncope refers to sudden, transient and complete loss of consciousness. The patient's loss of consciousness, in fact, in many cases has been quickly recovered at the moment the patient fell to the ground. This situation is often related to insufficient blood perfusion of the brain. There is no need to panic. The patient should be kept quiet and supine and drink an appropriate amount of warm water. Send to hospital for further treatment. 6. Comatose and convulsions In the campus, if you encounter a comatose and convulsive patient, you should check whether they have a pulse and whether their breathing is normal. Ask the people around you whether they have taken some drugs, such as oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulin, etc. In addition, the patient needs to be treated to prevent suffocation by tilting the head to one side so that saliva or secretions can flow down the corner of the mouth. Since the possibility of acute cerebral stroke cannot be ruled out, the patient should be promptly sent to a doctor to determine the cause of the coma and convulsions and deal with it in a timely manner. 7. Suffocation The occurrence of suffocation in the school is often related to the accidental swallowing of foreign objects by children, so the first time is to expel the foreign objects to prevent the foreign objects from further descending into the respiratory tract. The rescuer can stand behind the suffocating patient and use his hands to clasp his fists on his abdomen to perform short and hard pressure shocks, repeated several times until the foreign body is discharged; Step over the patient, push the upper abdomen with both hands, and make a quick shock with force. You can also have him bend over so that the opening of his airway, that is, his nose and mouth, is lower, and then pat his back vigorously. If you have an accident, you can press the upper abdomen on the back of the chair, table corner, railing, etc., repeatedly press and impact, and try to flush out the foreign body as much as possible. Chief Physician Xiong Yan reminded that if the patient is suffocated, people around him should be careful to slap the back, because the effect may be counterproductive. 8. Cardiac arrest In case of a cardiac arrest patient, you should call for help first, dial 120 or call someone around you for assistance, and perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and chest compression while waiting for rescue. The frequency of compression is 100~100~ 120 times, the depth of pressing is 5~6 cm, and you should pay attention to sufficient rebound each time you press. Note that you should continue to press to reduce interruptions. If there is an AED device nearby, you should find, obtain and use it in time. 9. When encountering a drowning person, you should help to call and ask for help. You can collect materials on the spot and throw some ropes, bamboo poles and other items at the drowning person. Do not rashly rescue yourself without ensuring your own safety. After the drowning person is rescued from the water, do not perform various water control operations on them, such as hanging upside down on their backs, flipping them upside down, or running around the pool with their backs on their backs. The above are all wrong practices. In addition, standard CPR procedures should be administered to patients who are unconscious and not breathing before rescue arrives. 10. The explosion is on the campus. Once an explosive incident related to the chemical laboratory occurs, everyone must remember to evacuate the scene as soon as possible, call your companions and teachers to evacuate the scene as soon as possible, be alert to secondary explosions, and do not try to put out the fire. Accidents will happen. Chief Physician Xiong Yan said that students should improve their ability to help themselves and others, master scientific, efficient and simple emergency first aid knowledge and skills, identify and correctly handle sudden diseases and injuries in a timely manner, and escort a healthy and safe campus life. Family doctor's online feature, may not be reproduced without authorization


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