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Why can't cough medicine be used indiscriminately? What are the commonly used cough and phlegm medicines?

Time:2022-09-26 01:16:53 source:psychiatricethics.com author:Mental disorder Read:406次
Why can't cough medicine be used indiscriminately? What are the commonly used cough and phlegm medicines?

#healthy大年#Why do people cough? It is because the bronchus is stimulated, the bronchial smooth muscle contracts, and the airway pressure increases, which is reflected to the brain, and the brain directs a series of smooth muscles such as the pleural muscle to start coughing and expel the foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Therefore, it can be seen that cough is the body's self-protection mechanism. When a cough occurs, we cannot blindly stop the cough, but find the cause. For example, if the cough is caused by a cold, if the cold is cured first, the secretions in the upper respiratory tract will be reduced, and then the cough will naturally improve. However, due to some reasons, the cough is more severe, causing chest pain, urination when coughing, and some cough medicines are needed when the respiratory tract is damaged. Antitussives are divided into central antitussives and peripheral antitussives. Central antitussive drugs can block the conduction of the medulla oblongata cough nerve, and the representative drug is codeine. It can be metabolized to methoxymorphine, so it has analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal effects. The analgesic effect is 1/12 of that of morphine, and the antitussive effect is 1/4 of that of morphine. It is addictive. Children under 12 years old Disabled. Phorcodine should be used for antitussive in children. The antitussive strength is the same as that of codeine. It is less addictive and tolerated by children. Dextromethorphan has no analgesic effect, so it is not addictive, and its antitussive effect is slightly stronger than that of codeine. It is contraindicated in pregnancy and children under 2 years old. The antitussive effect of pentoverine is only 1/3 of that of codeine, and it is non-addictive. Children under 2 years old are prohibited. Benproperine has both central antitussive and peripheral antitussive effects. Its strength is 2-4 times that of codeine, and it is not addictive. Drugs that combine both central and peripheral antitussives are also epradone. In addition, if there is phlegm that cannot be coughed out, we generally do not use antitussives, but phlegm-relieving drugs. Expectorants for phlegm include nausea expectorant ammonium chloride, guaifenesin. Mucus-dissolving drugs ambroxol, acetylcysteine, eucalyptus limonene. Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, dissolves fibrin of mucus molecules, thereby diluting sputum. Clinically, injections are commonly used for nebulization, which is wrong, because the particles of ambroxol injection are relatively large and will deposit in the alveoli. Therefore, the solution of ambroxol is used for atomization. Acetylcysteine ​​has a sulfhydryl group, which can break the disulfide bond of mucus molecules, and it works quickly. It takes effect within one minute of atomization. When the pH is 7, the effect is the strongest, and it is also a broad-spectrum antidote. Eucalyptus limonene not only has the effect of dissolving mucous phlegm, but also has the effect of anti-inflammatory and expelling contrast agent in the respiratory tract. The viscous phlegm thinner carbocisteine ​​has the effect of decomposing mucin and glycoprotein disulfide bonds, increasing the operation of mucociliary, inhibiting the proliferation of bronchial goblet cells, as well as anti-inflammatory and mucosal repairing effects. It should be noted that expectorants cannot be used together with antitussives. Otherwise, the sputum is not easy to be discharged, but it will aggravate the condition. There are also some coughs that are variant asthma and require the use of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast sodium, which usually starts to work after two weeks of use.

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