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What drugs do we need to know about blood lipid lowering? What side effects do they have?

Time:2022-09-26 00:26:51 author:Anxiety disorder Read:376次
What drugs do we need to know about blood lipid lowering? What side effects do they have?

#Health2022# After the Chinese New Year, everyone started to go to work. Although the holidays were only a few days, the colleagues in the unit were all red-faced, and everyone seemed to have gained a lot of weight. After Xiao He went to the physical examination, he also found that his triglyceride was high. , I was a little worried, came to consult me, and I summed up the drugs for lowering blood lipids. First of all, what is hyperlipidemia? We say hyperlipidemia refers to high cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and its indicators are as follows: Hyperlipidemia is the main risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases It can cause atherosclerosis, thinning of blood vessel walls, weakening of blood vessel elasticity, high blood pressure, and the loss of atherosclerotic plaques, which can cause blood vessel embolism, induce coronary heart disease, stroke and other serious diseases. Therefore, it is extremely important to regulate blood lipids and prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. First of all, we need to reduce weight through diet, exercise and other lifestyles, and reduce the BMI index to a healthy level below 23.9. When our blood lipids are high for a long time and cannot be adjusted by diet and exercise, then we need to take drugs to assist treatment. However, there are many lipid-lowering drugs on the market, how should we choose? ①Statins, which are hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase (HMG-CoA) inhibitors, can reduce blood lipids by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol in cells, and can significantly reduce the levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statins mainly include pravastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, among which rosuvastatin has the strongest lipid-lowering effect and the highest safety , is the drug of choice for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mixed hyperlipidemia. The adverse reactions include rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, abnormal vision, liver function damage, abnormal blood sugar and so on. ②Fibrates, which are also widely used lipid-lowering drugs, mainly reduce triglycerides. Representative drugs include fenofibrate, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, clofibrate, etc. Its adverse reactions are also gastrointestinal reactions such as rhabdomyolysis, dizziness, nausea, and long-term use can cause liver and kidney damage. Therefore, patients with liver, gallbladder or severe kidney diseases should use these drugs with caution. ③ Niacin drugs, which can increase high-density lipoprotein, especially when LDL-C is decreased or combined with increased triglycerides. Representative drugs include niacin, asimox, and probucol. Adverse reactions of niacin drugs include liver poisoning, hyperglycemia, peptic ulcer, gout, etc. ④Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, can effectively reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine by selectively inhibiting the cholesterol transporter in the small intestine. It can be used in combination with statins. ⑤ bile acid chelators cholestyramine, colestipol and so on. These drugs can bind to bile acids in the gut and promote their excretion, thereby accelerating the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. Lowers cholesterol levels in the liver and blood. The most common adverse reactions are gastrointestinal reactions. When taking hypolipidemic drugs, attention should be paid to the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum phosphokinase (CK). . In addition, when taking statins, be careful not to take it with grapefruit juice.

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