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Everyone knows that betel nut is dangerous and not tasty, but why are they all addicted?

Time:2022-12-03 13:01:26 source:psychiatricethics.com author:Relax Read:756次
Everyone knows that betel nut is dangerous and not tasty, but why are they all addicted?

Recently, singer Fu Song died of oral cancer at the age of 36. In June this year, when Fu Song updated his last vlog, he revealed that his oral cancer had recurred three times. He also showed his wounds, half of his face was festering, and advised netizens to stay away from betel nut. Chewing betel nut for a long time will cause fibrosis of the oral mucosa and induce cancer. The close relationship between betel nut and oral cancer has long been recognized by the medical community. Moreover, people who eat betel nut for the first time will find that the taste experience of chewing betel nut is not good: the taste is very strange, with a pungent smell, some people even describe it as gasoline, salty, sweet and sour, if the taste is strong, it will It has a spicy taste, which leads to a lot of saliva secretion, and the throat feels blocked by something, and it feels like the throat is locked. At the same time, the face is flushed and sweaty, heart palpitations, dizziness, and the throat is as uncomfortable as scraping. After eating, stomach acid and bloating for a long time, although no pain, but no hunger, no appetite when eating, can not eat half a bowl. Such a dangerous and unpalatable food, why do so many people still like to chew it, and finally become addicted?

Addictive properties of ingredients

Betel nut is mainly grown in Hainan, Yunnan, Fujian and Taiwan in my country, and also in many countries in Southeast Asia. Its main chemical components are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, crude fibers, polyphenols, alkaloids and minerals. Alkaloids are an important component of betel nut and are most closely related to the bodily reactions caused by chewing betel nut. Areca nuts are rich in a variety of alkaloids, of which arecoline and arecoline are the most abundant. After eating, the body will appear ruddy face, body heat, slightly sweating and other reactions. At the same time, arecoline can make people feel euphoria, comfort and other subjective feelings, and improve people's ability to resist hunger and endurance. Arecoline also increases the release of endogenous corticotropin-releasing hormone, which induces a feeling of pleasure and has antidepressant-like effects. When people chew betel nut, these alkaloids are quickly absorbed through the buccal mucosa, and generally produce the above-mentioned various physical reactions and psychological feelings within 5 minutes, and last for about 2-3 hours. These unique pharmacological properties of betel nut are the basis for its widespread popularity among the population, and it has also become an important reason for the abuse of betel nut by some people.

Cultural Addiction

Betel nut chewing has existed since ancient times in India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Taiwan and many South Pacific islands , and this trend was very popular for a while. The custom of chewing betel nut in China has a history of more than 2,000 years and has continued to this day. At present, chewing betel nut in my country is mainly popular in Hunan, Hainan, Taiwan and other provinces. In some areas, people also give betel nut a deeper social significance, using it as a must-have for weddings or religious sacrifices. For example, when people in Xiangtan meet relatives and friends on the street, they will invite each other to the betel nut stall, and each will have a bite of betel nut. After the guests enter the door and take their seats, the host will respect each other with betel nut, tea and smoke. During the Spring Festival, there is a custom in Xiangtan to pay homage to the New Year. Neighbors go in in groups of three or five and say "Congratulations", and then walk away. Collecting treasures" and wishing the guests "the treasures return", because betel nut is like a silver ingot, so it is used to symbolize treasure. During the Spring Festival in Xiangtan, there is also a kind of people who "praise the land", that is, they use bamboo slices to beat the rhythm on a small gong, sing a long rhyme of praise, and go from house to house to ask for money. Thank you and accept. For people in Xiangtan who hold red weddings, the brides must offer two bites of betel nut to the guests: one bite is wrapped in red paper with five osmanthus seeds in it, and the other is wrapped in green paper with two osmanthus seeds in it, called "Precious Son of Betel Nut". Green, early birth of a precious son, five men and two women, and seven sons reunite. At night, there is a project to carry betel nut in a new house. The guest will recite a compliment, and the host must give him betel nut according to the guest's compliment. There are also ceremonies such as inviting spring guests in Xiangtan, celebrating birthdays, organizing wine for moving house, completion of new house, holding white wedding events, children's three dynasties or one-year-olds. , the master should also respect each other with betel nut. As a result, the amount of betel nut used each time ranges from hundreds to thousands. Some people also pack dozens to hundreds of betel nuts, wrap them in paper and stick them on red notes as gifts for each other.

Psychological Addiction

Betel nut, a daily indulgent, is the fourth most common category in the world after tobacco, alcohol and caffeinated beverages Psychoactive substances, about 600 million people around the world have the habit of chewing betel nut. Because chewing betel nut can make people feel slightly excitable and euphoric, and at the same time relieve mental tension and achieve a refreshing effect, long-term chewing will lead to certain addiction. One study found that 77.6% of betel nut chewers were defined as substance dependence (addiction), with 51% experiencing withdrawal symptoms, 39.8% experiencing craving symptoms, and 37.8% experiencing tolerance symptoms (requiring increasing doses). ). Moreover, the addiction index of those who chewed betel nut and smoked was 8 times that of those who only chewed betel nut. 11 cases of betel nut chewing patients who were transferred to the psychiatric outpatient clinic were evaluated for the severity of addiction, and it was found that 10 people had reached psychological addiction, and 8 people felt that their life would be better if they could stop chewing betel nut. In addition, many people who are addicted to chewing betel nut often mention that "eating betel nut is as addictive as smoking, and it's uncomfortable if you don't eat it, and you can't quit even if you want to." 1-2 days after stopping betel nut chewing, betel nut chewers also experienced withdrawal symptoms including depression, anxiety, inability to concentrate, and fatigue. These research evidences suggest that, similar to other substance addiction behaviors, long-term chewing of betel nut can also lead to betel nut abuse or dependence, which meets the clinical diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV substance dependence. Other studies have pointed out that in real social life, betel nut chews sold in stores will be artificially added with substances containing morphine to enhance its psychoactive effects and form the danger of polydrug abuse.

Addiction in society

Another study found that rural and social low-income people chewed betel nut at a higher rate than other groups, possibly for a reason The cost of chewing betel nut is lower than that of other psychoactive substances (such as cigarettes and alcohol), so low-income people or farmers are more willing to chew betel nut. They also found that the proportion of people without higher education chewing betel nut is also much higher than that of people with higher education, suggesting that chewing betel nut seems to provide some people with a way to relieve life stress or stress. This is because people from rural and social low-income, uneducated and other groups face higher life pressures such as high family expenses, unstable work, etc.; chewing betel nut can quickly produce euphoria and comfort subjectively Experience, help relieve mental tension and enhance self-satisfaction; plus betel nut is a low-cost consumer product, so betel nut has become their first choice for relieving emotions and coping with stress. However, betel nut is different from other psychoactive substances. The first time chewing is not a pleasant feeling, but uncomfortable symptoms such as dizziness, chest tightness, and throat tightness. Many people who chew betel nut have a bad first experience. They will continue to chew food, which may be related to specific personality characteristics: some people may obtain psychological satisfaction by chewing betel nut to compensate for the psychological needs of the oral period that were wrong in their early years. In addition, impulsive personality traits are closely related to various substance addiction behaviors, and may also be related to betel nut chewing addiction. In life, the harm of many addictive substances is well known. No matter how harmless it seems, after trying it, it still drags people to the abyss. The reason is that we all underestimate our dependence. Overestimates one's own tolerance for addictive substances. So, whether it's smoking, drinking, gambling, betel nut, or even drugs, the best way to combat their harm is not to try, not even once! #bingnut# #36-year-old singer Fu Song died of oral cancer#

(责任编辑:Prevent anxiety)

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